Does girls’ advantage in reading comprehension augment and boys’ advantage in mathematics diminishes as the gender culture becomes more egalitarian? This study compared temperate regions of Peru, where women’s domestic power is greater, with tropical regions, where their power is weaker, in a factorial analysis that included three levels of urbanization and two levels of ability. Responses from 140.655 students in the second grade of primary instruction in the 2011 control sample of the Ministry of Education indicated that girls’ verbal advantage increased alongside with urbanization levels. Boys’ math advantage was observed only among students in temperate regions and was stronger among those with ability above the median. The author formulates an explanatory hypothesis.
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